Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome  is an extremely rare neurological condition with a greater frequency in the paediatric population . It was described by three clinicians in 1993, Dyke, Davidoff and Masson, who reported  patients with facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiparesis, seizures and mental retardation with pneumatoencephalographic findings on skull X-ray.
There is a slight male  preponderance. Adult cases  have also been reported, though very infrequently. The main causes of this rare syndrome are either congenital (in utero vascular occlusion) or acquired (perinatal hypoxia, intra-cranial haemorrhage and infections). Brain imaging  in the form of CT and MRI scans are required for diagnosis. Literature regarding anaesthetic considerations for this syndrome is sparse. Differential diagnoses  include Sturge-Weber syndrome, Fishman syndrome, Basal cell germinoma, Silver-Russell syndrome, Linear nevus syndrome and Rasmussen encephalitis.